2010 Winter Olympics
The 2010 Winter Olympics logo, named Ilanaaq the Inukshuk.
|Host city||Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada|
|Motto||With glowing hearts/
Des plus brillants exploits
|Athletes participating||2,566 (1044 women, 1522 men)|
|Events||86 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)|
|Opening ceremony||February 12|
|Closing ceremony||February 28|
|Officially opened by||Governor General Michaëlle Jean|
|Athlete's Oath||Hayley Wickenheiser|
|Judge's Oath||Michel Verrault|
|Olympic Torch||Catriona Le May Doan, Steve Nash, Nancy Greene, Wayne Gretzky|
|Stadium||BC Place Stadium|
|Part of a series on|
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, were a major international multi-sport event held from February 12 to 28, 2010, in Vancouver, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler. Approximately 2,600 athletes from 82 nations participated in 86 events in fifteen disciplines. Both the Olympic and Paralympic Games were organized by the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC), headed by John Furlong. The 2010 Winter Olympics were the third Olympics hosted by Canada and the first by the province of British Columbia. Previously, Canada hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec, and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. Vancouver is the largest city to host the Winter Olympics, a title soon to be turned over to Beijing in 2022.
Following Olympic tradition, then-Vancouver mayor Sam Sullivan received the Olympic flag during the closing ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy. The flag was raised on February 28, 2006, in a special ceremony and was on display at Vancouver City Hall until the Olympic opening ceremony. The event was officially opened by Governor General Michaëlle Jean, who was accompanied by Prime Minister Stephen Harper and International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge.
For the first time, Canada won gold in an "official" sport at an Olympic Games hosted at home, having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary (although Canada won a gold medal in the demonstration sport of curling in Calgary). Canada clinched their first gold medal on the second day of the competition and first topped the gold medal tally on the second to last day of competition and went on to become the first host nation since Norway in 1952 to lead the gold medal count. With 14, Canada broke the record for the most gold medals won at a single Winter Olympics, which was 13, set by the former Soviet Union in 1976 and Norway in 2002. The United States won the most medals in total, their second time doing so at the Winter Olympics, and broke the record for the most medals won at a single Winter Olympics with 37, a record held up to then by Germany in 2002 with 36 medals. Athletes from Slovakia and Belarus won the first Winter Olympic gold medals for their nations.
- 1 Bid and preparations
- 2 Financials
- 3 Venues
- 4 Marketing
- 5 Media coverage
- 6 Torch relay
- 7 The Games
- 8 Concerns and controversies
- 9 Legacy
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
- 14 Further reading
Bid and preparations
|2010 Winter Olympics bidding results|
|City||Nation||Round 1||Round 2|
The Canadian Olympic Association chose Vancouver as the Canadian candidate city over Calgary, which sought to re-host the Games and Quebec City, which had lost the 2002 Olympic bid in 1995. On the first round of voting on November 21, 1998, Vancouver-Whistler had 26 votes, Quebec City had 25 and Calgary had 21. On December 3, 1998, the second and final round of voting occurred between the two leading contenders, which saw Vancouver win with 40 votes compared to Quebec City's 32 votes. Vancouver had also previously bid for the 1976 games, which were first awarded to Denver, then to Innsbruck and the 1980 games, which were awarded to Lake Placid.
After the bribery scandal over the candidacy of the Salt Lake City bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics (which resulted in Quebec City asking for compensation (C$8 million) for its unsuccessful bid), many of the rules of the bidding process were changed in 1999. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) created the Evaluation Commission, which was appointed on October 24, 2002. Prior to the bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympics, host cities would often fly members of the IOC to their city where they toured the city and were provided with gifts. The lack of oversight and transparency often led to allegations of money for votes. Afterward, changes brought forth by the IOC bidding rules were tightened, and more focused on technical aspects of candidate cities. The team analyzed the candidate city features and provided its input back to the IOC.
Vancouver won the bid to host the Olympics by a vote of the International Olympic Committee on July 2, 2003, at the 115th IOC Session held in Prague, Czech Republic. The result was announced by IOC President Jacques Rogge. Vancouver faced two other finalists shortlisted that same February: Pyeongchang, South Korea, and Salzburg, Austria. Pyeongchang had the most votes of the three cities in the first round of voting, in which Salzburg was eliminated. In the run-off, all but two of the members who had voted for Salzburg voted for Vancouver. It was the closest vote by the IOC since Sydney, Australia beat Beijing for the 2000 Summer Olympics by two votes. Vancouver's victory came almost two years after Toronto's 2008 Summer Olympic bid was defeated by Beijing in a landslide vote.
The Vancouver Olympic Committee (VANOC) spent C$16.6 million on upgrading facilities at Cypress Mountain, which hosted the freestyle (aerials, moguls, ski cross) and snowboarding events. With the opening in February 2009 of the C$40 million Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre at Hillcrest Park, which hosted curling, every sports venue for the 2010 Games was completed on time and at least one year prior to the Games.
In 2004, the operational cost of the 2010 Winter Olympics was estimated to be Canadian $1.354 billion (about £828,499,787, €975,033,598 or US$1,314,307,896). As of mid-2009 it was projected to be C$1.76 billion, mostly raised from non-government sources, primarily through sponsorships and the auction of national broadcasting rights. C$580 million was the taxpayer-supported budget to construct or renovate venues throughout Vancouver and Whistler. A final audit conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers released in December 2010 revealed total operation cost to have been $1.84 billion and came in on budget resulting in neither surplus nor deficit. Construction of venues also came on budget with a total cost of $603 million.
PricewaterhouseCoopers' study estimated a total contribution to the BC economy of $2.3 billion of Gross Domestic Product, and as well creating 45,000 jobs and contributing an additional $463 million to the tourism industry while venue construction by VANOC and 3rd parties added $1.22 billion to the economy, far short of the $10 billion forecast by Premier Gordon Campbell. The study also said that hosting the Olympics was one of many reasons why the provincial debt grew by $24 billion during the decade. Non direct olympics games cost (e.g. expanded rail network, highways, security, paid time off for government employees "volunteering" etc.) cost in excess of 7 billion. In 2011, the provincial auditor-general declined to conduct a post-Games audit.
C$200 million was expected to be spent for security, which was organized through a special body, the Integrated Security Unit, of which the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) was the lead agency; other government agencies such as the Vancouver Police Department, Canada Border Services Agency, Canadian Forces, and police agencies across Canada. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) also played a role. That number was later revealed to be in the region of C$1 billion, an amount in excess of five times what was originally estimated.
Some venues, including the Richmond Olympic Oval, were at sea level, a rarity for the Winter Games. The 2010 Games were also the first—Winter or Summer—to have had an Opening Ceremony held indoors. Vancouver was the most populous city ever to hold the Winter Games. In February, the month when the Games were held, Vancouver has an average temperature of 4.8 °C (40.6 °F). The average temperature as measured at Vancouver International Airport was 7.1 °C (44.8 °F) for the month of February 2010.
The opening and closing ceremonies were held at BC Place Stadium, home of the CFL's BC Lions and the Vancouver Whitecaps of Major League Soccer. BC Place received over C$150 million in major renovations. Competition venues in Greater Vancouver included the Pacific Coliseum, the Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, the UBC Winter Sports Centre, the Richmond Olympic Oval and Cypress Mountain. GM Place (now known as Rogers Arena), home of the NHL's Vancouver Canucks, played host to ice hockey events, being renamed Canada Hockey Place for the duration of the Games since corporate sponsorship is not allowed for an Olympic venue. Renovations included the removal of advertising from the ice surface and conversion of some seating to accommodate the media. The 2010 Winter Olympics marked the first time an Olympic hockey game was played on a rink sized according to NHL rules instead of international specifications. Competition venues in Whistler included Whistler Creekside at the Whistler Blackcomb ski resort, the Whistler Olympic Park, the Whistler Celebration Plaza and the Whistler Sliding Centre.
The 2010 Winter Games marked the first time that the energy consumption of the Olympic venues was tracked in real time and made available to the public. Energy data was collected from the metering and building automation systems of nine of the Olympic venues and was displayed online through the Venue Energy Tracker project.
Leo Obstbaum (1969–2009), the late director of design for the 2010 Winter Olympics, oversaw and designed many of the main symbols of the Games, including the mascots, medals and the design of the Olympic torches.
The 2010 Winter Olympics logo was unveiled on April 23, 2005, and is named Ilanaaq the Inunnguaq. Ilanaaq is the Inuktitut word for friend. The logo was based on the Inukshuk (stone landmark or cairn) built by Alvin Kanak for the Northwest Territories Pavilion at Expo 86 and donated to the City of Vancouver after the event. It is now used as a landmark on English Bay Beach.
The mascots for the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games were designed by Vicki Wong and Michael C. Murphy of Meomi Design and introduced on November 27, 2007. Inspired by traditional First Nations creatures, the mascots include:
- Miga — A mythical sea bear, part orca and part Kermode bear.
- Quatchi — A sasquatch, who wears winter boots and blue earmuffs.
- Sumi — An animal guardian spirit who wears the hat of an orca whale, flies with the wings of the mighty Thunderbird and runs on the strong furry legs of a black bear.
- Mukmuk — A Vancouver Island marmot.[A]
The Royal Canadian Mint produced a series of commemorative coins celebrating the 2010 Games, and in partnership with CTV allowed users to vote on the Top 10 Canadian Olympic Winter Moments; where designs honouring the top three were added to the series of coins.
Canada Post released many stamps to commemorate the Vancouver Games including, one for each of the mascots and one to celebrate the first Gold won in Canada. Many countries' postal services have also released stamps, such as the US, Germany, Australia (who present medallists with a copy of the stamps depicting their image), Austria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, Switzerland, Turkey and Ukraine.
Two official video games have been released to commemorate the Games: Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games was released for Wii and Nintendo DS in October 2009, while Vancouver 2010 was released in January 2010 for Xbox 360, Windows and PlayStation 3. The official theme songs for the 2010 Winter Games used by the Canada's Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium (commonly known as CTV Olympics) were "I Believe" performed by Nikki Yanofsky and "J'imagine" performed by Annie Villeneuve.
Three albums, Canada's Hockey Anthems: Sounds of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games, Sounds of Vancouver 2010: Opening Ceremony Commemorative Album, and Sounds of Vancouver 2010: Closing Ceremony Commemorative Album, composed, arranged and produced by Dave Pierce, were released to accompany the Games. Pierce's Music Direction for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies led him to win the Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Music Direction" in 2010.
|Sponsors of the 2010 Winter Olympics|
|Worldwide Olympic Partners|
|National Media Suppliers|
The Olympic Games in Vancouver were broadcast worldwide by a number of television broadcasters. As rights for the 2010 Games have been packaged with those for the 2012 Summer Olympics, broadcasters were largely identical for both events.
The host broadcaster was Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver, a subsidiary of the IOC's new in-house broadcasting unit Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS). The 2010 Olympics marked the first Games where the host broadcasting facilities were provided solely by OBS. The executive director of Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver was Nancy Lee, a former producer and executive for CBC Sports.
In Canada, the Games were the first Olympic Games broadcast by a new Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium led by CTVglobemedia and Rogers Media, displacing previous broadcaster CBC Sports. Main English-language coverage was shown on the CTV Television Network, while supplementary programming was mainly shown on TSN and Rogers Sportsnet. Main French-language coverage was shown on V and RDS.
In the United States, Associated Press (AP) announced that it would send 120 reporters, photographers, editors and videographers to cover the Games on behalf of the country's news media. The cost of their Olympics coverage prompted AP to make a "real departure for the wire service's online coverage". Rather than simply providing content, it partnered with more than 900 newspapers and broadcasters who split the ad revenue generated from an AP-produced multi-media package of video, photos, statistics, stories and a daily Webcast. AP's coverage included a microsite with web widgets facilitating integration with social networking and bookmarking services. On NBC, Bob Costas hosted the primetime telecast, while Al Michaels did so during the day. Together they co-hosted NBC's coverage of the Closing Ceremony.
The Olympic Torch Relay is the transfer of the Olympic flame from Ancient Olympia, Greece — where the first Olympic Games were held thousands of years ago — to the stadium of the city hosting the current Olympic Games. The flame arrives just in time for the Opening Ceremony.
For the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games, the flame was lit in Olympia on October 22, 2009. It then traveled from Greece, over the North Pole to Canada's High Arctic and on to the West Coast and Vancouver. The relay started its long Canada journey from the British Columbia capital of Victoria. In Canada, the torch traveled approximately 45,000 kilometres (28,000 mi) over 106 days, making it the longest relay route within one country in Olympic history. The Olympic Torch was carried by approximately 12,000 Canadians and reached over 1,000 communities.
Celebrity torchbearers included Arnold Schwarzenegger, Steve Nash, Matt Lauer, Justin Morneau, Michael Bublé, Bob Costas, Shania Twain, and hockey greats including Sidney Crosby, Wayne Gretzky, and the captains of the two Vancouver Canucks teams that went to the Stanley Cup Finals: Trevor Linden (1994) and Stan Smyl (1982).
Participating National Olympic Committees
82 National Olympic Committees (NOC) entered teams in the 2010 Winter Olympics. Cayman Islands, Colombia, Ghana, Montenegro, Pakistan, Peru and Serbia made their winter Olympic debuts. Also Jamaica, Mexico and Morocco returned to the Games after missing the Turin Games. Tonga sought to make its Winter Olympic debut by entering a single competitor in luge, attracting some media attention, but he crashed in the final round of qualifying. Luxembourg qualified two athletes but did not participate because one did not reach the criteria set by the NOC and the other was injured before the Games. Below is a map of the participating nations and a list of the nations with the number of competitors indicated in brackets.
The following nations which competed at the previous Winter Games in Turin did not participate in Vancouver:
86 events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports were included in the 2010 Winter Olympics. The three skating sports disciplines were figure skating, speed skating, and short track speed skating. The six skiing sport disciplines were alpine, cross-country skiing, freestyle, Nordic combined, ski jumping and snowboarding. The two bobsleigh sports disciplines were bobsleigh and skeleton. The other four sports were biathlon, curling, ice hockey, and luge. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each discipline.
- Alpine skiing (10) ( )
- Biathlon (10) ( )
- Bobsleigh (3) ( )
- Cross-country skiing (12) ( )
- Curling (2) ( )
- Figure skating (4) ( )
- Freestyle skiing (6) ( )
- Ice hockey (2) ( )
- Luge (3) ( )
- Nordic combined (3) ( )
- Short track speed skating (8) ( )
- Skeleton (2) ( )
- Ski jumping (3) ( )
- Snowboarding (6) ( )
- Speed skating (12) ( )
The opening and closing ceremonies and the events categorized as ice sports (excluding bobsleigh, luge and skeleton) were held in Vancouver and Richmond. The sports categorized as "Nordic events" were held in the Callaghan Valley located just to the west of Whistler. All alpine skiing events were held on Whistler Mountain (Creekside) and sliding events (bobsleigh, luge and skeleton) were held on Blackcomb Mountain. Cypress Mountain (located in Cypress Provincial Park in West Vancouver) hosted the freestyle skiing (aerials, moguls and ski cross), and all snowboard events (half-pipe, parallel giant slalom, snowboard cross).
Vancouver 2010 was also the first winter Olympics in which both men's and women's hockey were played on a narrower, NHL-sized ice rink, measuring 200 ft × 85 ft (61 m × 26 m), instead of the international size of 200 ft × 98.5 ft (61.0 m × 30.0 m). The games were played at General Motors Place (now Rogers Arena), home of the NHL's Vancouver Canucks, which was temporarily renamed Canada Hockey Place for the duration of the Olympics. Utilizing this existing venue instead of building a new international-sized ice rink facility saved $10 million in construction costs and allowed an additional 35,000 spectators to attend Olympic hockey games. However, some European countries expressed concern over this decision, worried that it might give North American players an advantage since they grew up playing on the smaller NHL-sized rinks. By contrast, the only other NHL venue to host Olympic hockey, the Calgary Flames' Olympic Saddledome, started construction before Calgary won the bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics and it was designed to accommodate an international ice rink.
There were a number of events that were proposed to be included in the 2010 Winter Olympics. On November 28, 2006, the IOC Executive Board at their meeting in Kuwait voted to include ski cross in the official program. The Vancouver Olympic Committee (VANOC) subsequently approved the event to officially be part of the Games program.
Events proposed for inclusion but ultimately rejected included:
- Biathlon mixed relay
- Mixed doubles curling
- Team alpine skiing
- Team bobsled and skeleton
- Team luge
- Women's ski jumping
The issue over women's ski jumping being excluded ended up in the Supreme Court of British Columbia in Vancouver during April 21–24, 2009, with a verdict on July 10 excluding women's ski jumping from the 2010 Games. A request to appeal that verdict to the Supreme Court of Canada was subsequently denied on December 22 – a decision that marked the end of any hopes that the event would be held during Vancouver 2010. To alleviate the exclusion, VANOC organizers invited women from all over Canada to participate at Whistler Olympic Park, including Continental Cup in January 2009. Women's ski jumping was included in the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.
In the following calendar for the 2010 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box indicates that an event competition, such as a qualification round, was held on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held with the number in these boxes representing the number of finals that were contested on that day.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Event finals||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony||●||Medal ceremony|
|Cross country skiing||2||2||1||1||2||1||1||1||1||12|
|Short track speed skating||1||1||2||1||3||8|
|Whistler Medal Plaza||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●|
The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. The host nation, Canada, is highlighted.
Host country (Canada)
|3||United States (USA)||9||15||13||37|
|5||South Korea (KOR)||6||6||2||14|
Concerns and controversies
Some in the foreign press, including London 2012 organizers, had criticized the lack of city decorations to acknowledge that Vancouver was the host of the Games. The original plans to decorate the city in Olympic colours, a tradition followed by other recent Games host cities, were canceled for several reasons. Anti-Games activists repeatedly vandalized the existing 2010 Olympics monuments such as the countdown clock, forcing the city to install CCTV cameras, and adding more Games decorations would have inevitably required more security presence to deter protesters, so VANOC opted to minimize these symbols to avoid making the city a police state. Besides local opposition, budget cutbacks also forced the organizers to scale back on the elaborate plans.
VANOC initially benefited from an economic boom and was able to secure lucrative and record domestic sponsorships, however this boom period also suffered from rapidly rising construction and labour costs. Due to these factors, as well as the late 2000s financial crisis and economic recession, VANOC built minimalistic functional venues with little aesthetic appeal though they were well-designed for post-Games usage. This approach, as well as the fact that most of the infrastructure already existed, meant that the direct costs of the Vancouver Games were much lower than recent Olympic editions.
Before the Games began and as they commenced, a number of concerns and controversies surfaced and received media attention. Hours before the opening ceremony, Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili was killed during a training run, intensifying questions about the safety of the course and prompting organizers to implement quick modifications. However, officials concluded that it was an athlete error rather than a track deficiency. The International Luge Federation called an emergency meeting after the accident, and all other training runs were cancelled for the day. The President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili, thanked the hosts for the way that they handled Kumaritashvili's death which included a moment of silence and a tribute to Kumaritashvili at the opening ceremony.
One critic questioned the choice of Cypress Mountain as a venue because of its frequent lack of snow due to El Niño. Because of this possibility, organizers had a contingency plan to truck in snow from Manning Park, about 250 kilometres (160 mi) to the east of the city. This allowed events to proceed as planned.
Political decisions involving cancellation of promised low-income housing and the creation of a community of mixed economic backgrounds for post-Games use of the athletes' village was criticized.
Opening ceremonies were stalled while organizers dealt with mechanical problems during the cauldron lighting ceremony. Speed skating events were delayed due to breakdowns of the ice resurfacers supplied by Olympia, an official sponsor of the Games.
Thousands of tickets were voided by organizers when weather conditions made standing-room-only areas unsafe. Visitors were also upset that, as in previous Olympics, medal ceremonies required separate admission and that blocks of VIP tickets reserved for sponsors and dignitaries were unused at events. Other glitches and complaints have included confusion by race officials at the start of the February 16 men's and women's biathlon pursuit races, and restricted access to the Olympic flame cauldron on the Vancouver waterfront.
Opposition to the Olympic Games was expressed by activists and politicians, including Lower Mainland mayors Derek Corrigan and Richard Walton. Many of the public pre-Olympic events held in Vancouver were attended by protesters.
On Saturday, February 13, as part of a week-long Anti-Olympic Convergence, protesters smashed windows of the Downtown Vancouver location of The Hudson's Bay department store. Protesters later argued that the Hudson's Bay Company, "has been a symbol of colonial oppression for centuries" as well as a major sponsor of the 2010 Olympics.
There were several other reasons for the opposition, some of which are outlined in Helen Jefferson Lenskyj's books Olympic Industry Resistance (2007) and Inside the Olympic Industry (2000). These issues include:
- Displacement of low-income residents.
- Anticipated human trafficking for the purpose of forced prostitution.
First Nations opposition
Although the Aboriginal governments of the Squamish, Musqueam, Lil'wat and Tsleil-Waututh (the "Four Host First Nations"), on whose traditional territory the Games were held, signed a protocol in 2004 in support of the games, there was opposition to the Olympics from some indigenous groups and supporters. Although the Lil'wat branch of the St'at'imc Nation is a co-host of the Games, a splinter group from the Seton band known as the St’at’imc of Sutikalh, who have also opposed the Cayoosh Ski Resort, feared the Olympics would bring unwanted tourism and real estate sales to their territory.
Unrelated to the four host nations or other indigenous groups, members of the Native Warrior Society removed the Olympic flag from its flag-pole at Vancouver City Hall on March 6, 2007.
Local aboriginal people, as well as Canadian Inuit, initially expressed concern over the choice of an inukshuk as the symbol of the Games, with some Inuit leaders such as former Nunavut Commissioner Peter Irniq stating that the inukshuk is a culturally important symbol to them. He said that the "Inuit never build inuksuit with head, legs and arms. I have seen inuksuit [built] more recently, 100 years maybe by non-Inuit in Nunavut, with head, legs and arms. These are not called inuksuit. These are called inunguat, imitation of man." Local aboriginal groups also expressed annoyance that the design did not reflect the Coast Salish and Interior Salish native culture from the region the Games are being held in, but rather that of the Inuit, who are indigenous to the Arctic far from Vancouver.
On March 11, 2010, it was reported that the Polish cross country skier Kornelia Marek was tested positive for EPO by the Polish Olympic Committee. If found guilty of doping by the International Olympic Committee, Marek and the relay teams would be disqualified and stripped of their Vancouver results. She would also be banned from the next Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, in 2014.
Marek denied taking any banned substances, but the backup "B" sample from the Vancouver doping lab confirmed the "A" sample.
The massive celebratory crowds in downtown Vancouver were highly praised by the IOC. Jacques Rogge, the president of IOC, indicated that "the way Vancouver embraced these Games was extraordinary. This is really something unique and has given a great atmosphere for these Games." The atmosphere surrounding the Olympics, and its inclusion of foreign delegates and guests, was also praised, with many seasoned Winter Olympic observers putting the games at, or near, the top of the list of best ever Winter Olympics. They were also the best watched Winter Olympics since the 1994 Olympics in Lillehammer. They are also mentioned alongside the Sydney 2000 Summer games in regards to the best atmosphere. A large part is credited to the citizens of Vancouver and Canada.
Some members of the media (mostly, and particularly the British media) criticized the Own the Podium and criticized the celebrations as having been somewhat nationalistic, but this was not an opinion shared by many. Some suggested that the British media were making these criticisms in order to make the upcoming 2012 Summer Olympics more appealing. Lord Sebastian Coe, chairman of the 2012 London Olympic Games Organizing Committee, attended the Vancouver Olympics to see how the city coped with the challenges of hosting. Lord Coe noted the Games had "gradually recovered from its tumultuous start" and queried that he "never thought the British would find rivals in their preoccupation with the weather which is almost elevated to an Olympic event" as he credited VANOC for meeting unforeseen challenges such as the unseasonably warm weather of Cypress Mountain. Coe added "Rarely have I seen a host city so passionate and so ready to embrace the Games".
Directly as a result of Canada's medal performance at the 2010 Olympics, the Government of Canada announced in the 2010 federal budget, a new commitment of $34 million over the next two years towards programs for athletes planning to compete in future Olympics. This is in addition to the $11 million per year federal government commitment to the Own the Podium program.
Also, as a result of hosting the 2010 Olympics, the British Columbia government pledged to restore funding for sports programs and athlete development to 2008 levels, which amounts to $30 million over three years.
Use After the Olympic Games
The arenas in which the games were held are open for the public to use. The Richmond Olympic Oval has since been turned into an athletic centre.
- 2010 Winter Paralympics
- Olympic Games celebrated in Canada
- Winter Olympic Games
- Olympic Games
- International Olympic Committee
- List of IOC country codes
- 2010 Winter Olympics victory ceremonies
- A. Miga and Quatchi were mascots for the Olympic Games, while Sumi was the mascot for the Paralympic Games. Mukmuk is considered a sidekick, not a full mascot.
- "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Office of the Governor General of Canada (February 8, 2010). "Governor General to Open the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Robson, Dan (February 12, 2010). "Gretzky lights up Vancouver Olympics". CBC Sports. CBC. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
- "U.S. clinches medals mark, Canada ties gold record". Vancouver. Associated Press. February 27, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- Canadian Press (February 27, 2010). "Canada sets Olympic gold record". CBC Sports. Archived from the original on 2010-03-03. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
- "Anastazia Kuzmina wins Slovakia first winter crown". The Australian. February 14, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- "Grishin Grabs First Gold For Belarus". Vancouver. Reuters. February 26, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "Past Olympic Host City Election Results". GameBids.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
- "IOC rejects Quebec City request". Slam! Olympics. March 23, 1999. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "Vancouver to host 2010 Winter Olympics". CBBC Newsround. July 2, 2003. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "New Vancouver 2010 Sports Venues Completed". Crsportsnews.com. February 24, 2009. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Vancouver 2010 sport venues completed on time and within C$580-million budget. Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre opens today as a model of sustainable building – News Releases : Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics". Vancouver2010.com. February 19, 2009. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Vancouver's 'Poverty Olympics' Protest Millions Spent On Winter Games". Huffingtonpost.com. February 8, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Vancouver Olympics generated $2.5 billion". Calgaryherald.com. December 18, 2010. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Vancouver Olympics worth the $7-billion price tag, study says, Mark Hume, theglobeandmail.com, August 2017
- Vancouver’s recession-rocked Olympics left a mixed economic legacy, Bob Mackin, Metronews.ca, January 2014
- "Olympic security estimated to cost C$900M". CBC News. February 19, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "Winter Olympics Vancouver | Travel and Tourism". Tstsy.com. 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Vancouver Olympics Open With Indoor Ceremonies". NPR. February 12, 2010. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Mackin, Bob (February 10, 2010). "Vancouver to reduce downtown traffic". Toronto Sun. QMI. Archived from the original on February 24, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- "Winter Olympics all wet?: Vancouver has the mildest climate of any Winter Games host city". Vancouver Sun. July 9, 2003.
- "Daily Data Report for February 2010". National Climate Data and Information Archive. Environment Canada. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "GM Place to get new name for 2010". CTV News. 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "Measuring the Power of Sport". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- Wingrove, Josh (August 21, 2009). "Vancouver Olympic designer dies at age 40". Globe and Mail. CTV Television Network. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "2010 Vancouver Olympics' mascots inspired by First Nations creatures". CBC Sports. November 27, 2007. Archived from the original on November 30, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
- "14 circulating coins included in 2010 Olympic program", Bret Evans, Canadian Coin News, January 23 to February 5, 2007 issue of Canadian Coin News
- Shaw, Hollie (February 20, 2009). "What's Your Olympic Moment?". The National Post. Retrieved February 26, 2009.[dead link]
- "Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games". USPS. January 22, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Weltweite Sportereignisse – Olympische Winterspiele 2010". Deutsche Post. February 11, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "2010 Olympic Winter Gold Medallist". Australia Post. March 11, 2010. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Karl Benjamin – Viererblock". Post and Telecom Austria AG. February 12, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "XXI Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver". Belpochta. January 25, 2010. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "XXI. Olympic Winter Games". Croatian Post. February 1, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "XXI. zimní olympijské hry Vancouver 2010". Ceska Posta. February 10, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "XXI taliolümpiamängud Vancouveris". Eesti Post. February 12, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Diptyque J.O. d'Hiver de Vancouver". La Poste. February 8, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "inter Olympic Games "Vancouver 2010". Poste Italiane. February 12, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Olympische Winterspiele Vancouver 2010". Poste Italiane. February 12, 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "XXI Olympic Winter Games". Lithuania Post. January 30, 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "VANCOUVER 2010 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES". Polish Post. January 27, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "PhilaShop – Olympische Spiele 2010" (in German). Die Post. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Untitled Document". PTT. Archived from the original on May 11, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Philately". YKPNOWTA. February 5, 2010. On 05.02.2010 postage stamps ... Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Vancouver 2010 signs new licensees to create products, auction off memorabilia capturing memories of Games". Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. February 22, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- Jessica Patterson, for Metro Canada. "Olympics composer Dave Pierce wins one more Gold for Canada". Yahoo! News. Retrieved November 8, 2010.[dead link]
- "OBSV Introduction". Obsv.ca. Archived from the original on January 20, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Nancy Lee leaving CBC Sports", cbc.ca, October 10, 2006.
- "CTV wins 2010 and 2012 Olympic broadcast rights". CBC Sports. February 9, 2005. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
- "AP Seeks New Internet Business Model in Winter Olympics". Editor & Publisher. February 4, 2010. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- About this Vancouver 2010 Winter Games Microsite from wintergames.ap.org
- Jeux olympiques d'Hiver: Vancouver 2010, France Télévisions
- "Sitting Duck – Team". Sittingduckmusicandmedia.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Olympic flame lit for Vancouver Games". Russia Today. October 22, 2009. Archived from the original on October 23, 2009. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
- "Funding for 2010 Olympics torch relay to focus on local events". CBC News. April 30, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- "2010 Olympic Torch relay general info". CTV. CTV. February 11, 2010. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "Emotions run high on final day of torch relay". Vancouver Sun. Canwest Publishing. February 12, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- Swiat, Stefan (February 13, 2010). "Nash carries Olympic torch". nba.com. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "For the next Hour, I am pure Canadian". Vancouver 24hr news. Canoe. February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "Healthy Morneau excited to carry Torch". mlb.com. mlb.com. February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "Michael Buble, Jann Arden to join in Olympic torch ceremony". vancouversun.com. Canwest Publishing. February 11, 2010. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "Torchbearer 102 Bob Costas carries the flame in Burnaby". vancouver2010.com. vancouver2010.com. January 1, 2010. Archived from the original on February 19, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- "Shania Twain carries Olympic torch". The Canadian Press. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 1, 2010. Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- "Reserved, restrained, and rocking with Sid the Kid". ctvolympics.ca. The Globe and Mail. February 11, 2010. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "Pressing questions as Olympic hockey beckons". February 14, 2010. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- CBC News (February 11, 2010). "Olympic fever builds in Vancouver". cbcsports.ca. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- Lederman, Marsha (February 8, 2010). "Schwarzenegger, Buble to carry torch". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "Olympic Athletes, Teams and Countries". Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. VANOC. Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
- "Tongan athlete narrowly misses out on Winter Olympics", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, February 1, 2010
- "Summary of Quota allocation (Alpine Skiing)" (PDF). FIS-Ski – International Ski Federation. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 2, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Sport | Kari Peters bleibt zu Hause". wort.lu. Archived from the original on 2010-02-20. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Sport | Stefano Speck fährt nicht nach Vancouver". wort.lu. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Countries". Yahoo Sports. Archived from the original on 2011-11-25. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- "Vancouver Olympics – Athletes". Vancouver2010.com. Archived from the original on December 25, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Kman, Randy (June 10, 2009). "Alpine team takes fall at 2010 Games – Vancouver 2010 Olympics". Toronto: thestar.com. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Germany, Norway round out 2010 Olympic men's hockey". TSN. February 8, 2009. Archived from the original on February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
- "Athletes : Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics". Vancouver2010.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "ISU Figure skating qualification system". Retrieved January 25, 2011.[dead link]
- "2009 Figure Skating World Championship results". Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "Saiba os brasileiros que podem ir a Vancouver". Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "Bulgaria received one more quota for the games". Топспорт. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- "Travers is snow joke". Retrieved November 5, 2009.
- "Olympic Qualification". World Curling Federation. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
- "Suomen Olympiajoukkueeseen Vancouver 2010 -talvikisoihin on valittu 94 urheilijaa – kahdella miesalppihiihtäjällä vielä mahdollisuus lunastaa paikka joukkueessa – Suomen Olympiakomitea". Noc.fi. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "108 Français à Vancouver – JO 2010 – L'EQUIPE.FR". Vancouver2010.lequipe.fr. Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Ghana's 'Snow Leopard' qualifies to ski in 2010 Winter Olympics". CBC News. March 12, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "Short Track Speed Skating entry list". November 24, 2009. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- "Tashi and Jamyang qualify for 2010 Olympic Winter Games". March 18, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-07-19. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
- "Lambiel crushes competition at Nebelhorn". Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- "North Korea – CTV Olympics". Ctvolympics.ca. January 22, 2010. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Sports | Mongolia Web News". Mongolia-web.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Genomineerden". Nocnsf.nl. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Anders Rekdal tatt ut til OL i Vancouver på overtid". Olympiatoppen (in Norwegian). January 29, 2010. Archived from the original on March 5, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "Wystartujemy w Vancouver" (in Polish). March 19, 2009. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
- "Athletes : Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics". Vancouver2010.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "OS-truppen komplett(erad) – Olympic Team complete(d)". SOC. December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2010.
- "Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games Qualifications | News | USA Luge". Luge.teamusa.org. Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Mackin, Bob (June 6, 2006). "VANOC shrinks Olympic ice". Slam! Sports. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "2010 Olympic hockey will be NHL-sized". CBC News. June 8, 2006. Archived from the original on January 27, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "Ski-cross aims for Vancouver 2010". BBC Sport. June 12, 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "Ski-cross gets approved for 2010". BBC Sport. November 28, 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "Vancouver 2010: In good shape with positive progress on media accommodation". International Olympic Committee. March 9, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "Olympic programme updates". International Olympic Committee. November 28, 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- Vancouver2010.com July 10, 2009, article on the exclusion of women's ski jumping from the 2010 Games. Archived July 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. – accessed July 11, 2009.
- cbc.ca December 22, 2009, Supreme Court spurns women ski jumpers. – accessed December 22, 2009.
- "Vancouver 2010 Olympic Competition Schedule" (PDF). Vancouver Organizing Committee. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Four years later, a reflection on the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games. Vancitybuzz.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "Women's downhill crashes prompt safety change to course | NBC Olympics | Olympic Zone". NBC Olympics. 2010. Archived from the original on August 30, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "BBC Sport – Vancouver 2010 – Olympic luger Nodar Kumaritashvili dies after crash". BBC News. February 13, 2010. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Olympic luger Nodar Kumaritashvili dies after crash". BBC Sport. February 12, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- Winter Olympics 2010: Vancouver so passionate to embrace Games, says Seb Coe. Telegraph. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "The Tyee — Mush! Move Cypress Events to Okanagan". Thetyee.ca. Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Trucks start moving snow to Cypress Mountain from Manning Park". Vancouversun.com. February 2, 2010. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Mackin, Bob (June 19, 2009). "Vancouver releases secret Olympic Village documents, Bob Mackin, The Tyee, June 19, 2009". Thetyee.ca. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- MACKIN, BOB (February 15, 2010). "Mishaps plague games". Toronto Sun. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
- "Speed skating ice woes threaten green sheen". Reuters. February 16, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
- spiegelonline sport (February 18, 2010). "Möge das Wirrwarr gewinnen." (in German). Archived from the original on February 19, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- "VIP Olympic tickets going unused". Vancouver Sun. February 15, 2010. Archived from the original on February 25, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Gustus, Lauren, (Gannett News Service), "Starter error frustrates biathletes, guardsman", Military Times, February 18, 2010.
- Barron, David (February 18, 2010). "BURNING ISSUES:Officials get cauldron right at "Glitch Games"". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "Mayor is no fan of Olympic politics. But he did attend four hockey games and a speedskating event". Retrieved March 30, 2010. Corrigan's concern was with the politics in the site selection, notably his city losing out to another for the site of the speedskating oval.
- "Vancouver View". Areavoices.com. 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Lee, Jeff (March 13, 2007). "Protesters arrested at Olympic flag illumination". The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- "2010 Heart Attack disrupts Vancouver on day two of Winter Olympics". Straight.com. February 13, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Vancouver police lay charges in weekend riot[dead link]
- "W2 forum focuses on Black bloc tactics in February 13 protest against Vancouver Olympics". Straight.com. February 20, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Olympic Industry Resistance Archived December 31, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Anti-Olympics movement targeted: Some 15 VISU Joint Intelligence Group visits in 48 hours | San Francisco Bay View". Sfbayview.com. Archived from the original on May 5, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Protesting the Olympics? – Institute for Public Accuracy (IPA)". Accuracy.org. February 12, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- The Earthtimes (February 8, 2010). "Olympics? Take a walk on the wild side in Vancouver – Feature : Sports". Earthtimes.org. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Olympic games evict millions: Times Argus Online". Timesargus.com. June 6, 2007. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "The Tyee — Will Olympics Be Magnet for Human Traffickers?". Thetyee.ca. September 4, 2008. Archived from the original on February 4, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Kathie Wallace (February 2, 2010). "Human Trafficking Alive and Well for the 2010 Olympics | The Vancouver Observer – Vancouver Olympics News Blogs Events Reviews". The Vancouver Observer. Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Vancouver Olympics get an 'F' for failing to curb sex trafficking: group". Montrealgazette.com. February 9, 2010. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- 4HN_Protocol_Final_Nov 24.pub
- "Four Host First Nations". Four Host First Nations. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Sutikalh Re-occupation Camp". Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "It’s all about the Land". The Dominion. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- Native Warrior Society (March 7, 2007). "Native Warriors Claim Responsibility for Taking Olympic Flag". Infoshop News. Archived from the original on 2011-11-18. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- "Olympic inukshuk irks Inuit leader". CBC.ca Sports. April 27, 2005. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
- Polish cross-country skier Marek tests positive for EPO at Vancouver Olympics
- "Vancouver atmosphere will be tough to match". ESPN.com. Vancouver. Associated Press. March 1, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- "Rogge 'happy' but luge death overshadows Vancouver". Agence France-Presse. February 28, 2010. Archived from the original on March 5, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- James Pearce (February 28, 2010). "Were these Winter Olympics the best ever?". BBC. Archived from the original on January 25, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- David B. Wilkerson (February 19, 2010). "After seven days, Olympic ratings biggest since '94". MSNBC. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- Donegan, Lawrence (March 1, 2010). "Vancouver Winter Olympics Review: 'Mood on the streets was wonderful'" (Audio). London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 3, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- "U.K. press slams Canada's hosting of Games". CBC. February 15, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- Lawrence Donegan (February 15, 2010). "Vancouver Games continue downhill slide from disaster to calamity". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 27, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- Andy Miah (February 20, 2010). "Why Britain's Media are Failing at The Vancouver Olympic Games". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- Sebastian Coe defends Vancouver Winter Olympics from critics | Sport. theguardian.com (February 18, 2010). Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
- "IOC refuses to stand up for gay athletes". National Post, August 10, 2012.
- "More cash for Own the Podium". Vancouver Sun. Canwest Publishing. March 4, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.[dead link]
- "No cash earmarked for Own the Podium". Vancouver Sun. Toronto: Canwest Publishing. March 4, 2010. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2010 Winter Olympics.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vancouver 2010.|
|Wikinews has related news: Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games|
- "Vancouver 2010". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games, official website
- on 's channelYouTube
- The official Whistler website of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games
- David Wallechinsky; David Wallechinsky & Jaime Loucky (October 9, 2009). The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics (8th ed.). D&M Publishers Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-55365-502-2. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
XXI Olympic Winter Games (2010)